BVNE College Recruiting Showcase Events

Back in 2014 when We Are Volleyball Elite first started into the world of college recruiting and beach volleyball, it was still new. Beach volleyball was still part of the “indoor program” and dedicated beach programs simply didn’t exist. Then the NCAA changed the game and made beach volleyball a championship sport and scholarships and dedicated beach programs were started at colleges nationwide. This is when we first started in beach volleyball college recruiting, back in 2014 as the sport was just about to enter its prime!

College recruiting showcases are now popping up all over. It is exciting to see the sport grow, but also important to spend your recruiting showcase dollars with a seasoned team of professionals. BVNE showcase tournaments are well organized, provide transparency during the event by using computerized seeding, pool play, and playoff brackets. This helps ensure that the event is operated smoothly and reduces the challenges that come up with running events on paper, especially when players.

There’s one more thing….it’s the “trade secret” of our events. BVNE founder Daron Forbes has designed our events to provide value and solve problems for collegiate coaches. While the details are our trade secret, the results of player exposure at BVNE showcases is clear. We truly appreciate the emails we receive from players and parents, especially a recent email from a family in Canada who were surprised at the exposure to college coaches their player received at our event. She recently committed.

We may be biased, but the sport of beach volleyball seems to be on fire at the moment with growth happening all over. New beach only volleyball clubs, new beach tournaments to help players learn and grow, more new tournaments to help players reach the highest levels. It’s a great time to play beach volleyball!

See you on the beach,

The BVNE Team

Earn BVNE Points!

 

Earning points at all three beach volleyball tours for juniors can give you an advantage. At BVNE we have three different tours to play in.

BVNE presented by Queen Of the Beach®️
Play in a QOB and points earned from JBCL and our college recruiting showcase will be added to your total overall points in JBCL.

BVNE Juniors Beach Club League
In the JBCL the points you earn will be applied in our QOB & showcase. However, points can not transfer into the JBCL because this is a club driven event.

BVNE College Recruiting Showcase
You earn double points in our college recruiting showcase because this is our national tournament with teams traveling from all over the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico and have had International teams.

Points play an important part of your player ranking. Our system allows college coaches to follow your progress live when your playing and the higher your points the higher you’ll be seeded in a tournament. Not always does seeding work out due to teams who many have never played before in our BVNE events but it gives us a base on how to track players. The more you play the higher your points will be. At the end of the season tournament one player in each division will be recognized on 9/1 at our GrandSLAM event for having the top points.

Latest AVCA Division 1 Coaches Poll

Beach volleyball for women has been the fastest growing sport for several years now and by the looks of things we are continuing that growth.  With opportunities like BVNE College Recruiting Showcases and clinics junior girls now have a place to play and get noticed by college coaches to one day compete at the college level. If it’s your dream to continue to play in college our next College Recruiting showcase is June 10th in Santa Monica.

The AVCA has posted the results from this past weekend. Check out the results to see where your dream school is in the polls.

Visit the AVCA website right here:  https://www.avca.org/polls/beach/3-26-18.html

T3 PowerReady

T3 Power Ready is exactly what beach volleyball clubs, schools and athletes have needed.  To the Endless Summer Volleyball Club it was an absolute no brainer. For years Daron Forbes, the founder of the club, has purchased ladders, bands, and other accessories to take to the beach for training. I’ve always wanted to take weights to the beach. According to Daron, “I can’t physically take weights back and fourth to each practice so when I saw the T3 Power Ready I purchased ten.  You take an empty bag to the beach and then fill it up with sand. The bag is marked so you know how much sand is how many pounds of weight. It’s perfect for travel so when you get to your destination you can work out on the beach, no special equipment or extra costs. When your done you empty out the sand and you’re on your way.”

Athletes often travel and may be on the road for weeks or even months. There may not be a gym available to them at each location. T3 power ready is large enough to hold two balls and depending on the size of the bag can get from as little as 5 to as high as 100 pounds. Look for T3 power ready at our BVNE Events. T3 power Ready donates a portion of the funds to homeless veterans. A cause we all need to support for those men and women who have given unconditionally for our country. We would like to invite everyone to visit t3powerready.com

See what T3 is all about:

King of the Beach® and Queen of the Beach®

Beach Volleyball National Events would not be able to hold such great events without the help of our sponsors. More than that, we could not do what we do without the support of Steve Asher, founder of King of the Beach® and Queen of the Beach brands®. This past weekend Steve came out to support the inaugural Collegiate Beach Volleyball League event. Jason C. Dibelius from the NYvarsity Sports on Youtube managed to get some time with Steve for an interview.

Our thanks go out to Steve for all support and excitement he brings to our events.

BVNE hosted the University of Saint Katherine in the Inaugural Collegiate Beach Volleyball League

This past weekend was a great new step for college beach volleyball. Bech Volleyball National Events hosted the inaugural Collegiate Beach Volleyball League. Players from the University of St Katherine came to Santa Monica from San Marcos to play in the event. This will be the first of several events to come for colleges and college players to get in more skill development in preparation for their major events.

Here’ s how it went for the division 1 finals

A special thanks goes out to Jason C. Dibelius of NYvarsity on YouTube for putting together our videos.

The CBVL is open to all players who are currently playing or are 18 or older and looking to play in college at a small school such as those in the NAIA, CCAA, GSAC, junior college, or other colleges.

Special thanks to USK’s Director of Volleyball Karolyn Kirby for helping to organize teams for this event. Check out their event schedule here to cheer them on! Connect with USK volleyball on Instagram!

 

King & Queen Of The Snow™

BVNE is thrilled to accept an invitation for the inaugural King & Queen Of The Snow™ Mammoth Invitational to be held in Mammoth Lakes, California April 6-8th, 2017 at McCoy Station. Please join us together in California’s Eastern Sierra, at Mammoth, the premier Ski and Snowboard destination in the world.  Together with King & Queen Of The Beach® & Sinjin Smith, the greatest beach volleyball player of all time,  we’ll be celebrating 35 years of volleyball excitement.  We look forward to seeing our sport grow and evolve in exciting new ways at the PeyongChang Winter Olympic Games and Snow Volleyball Exhibition February 14th.

The Energetics of Beach Volleyball: How Collegiate Beach Athletes May Be at Risk for Low Energy Availability

This post was originally posted on Coach Wayne Holly’s blog on January 5, 2018. The BVNE team enjoyed reading it so much we republished it here.

Introduction

The number of women and girls playing sports in school is at an all time high.  Female sport participation in college has steadily grown for decades and now exceeds 217,600 athletes.[1] Increased participation has followed new opportunities for women to compete through sport sponsorship and athletic aid.[2]  As the NCAA’s newest sport, beach volleyball is now approaching its 7th season of competition and its second as a championship sport.  There are now 1,070 female athletes competing on 64 beach volleyball teams in Divisions I, II and III.[3].  Since being added to the emerging sports list in 2009, the number of beach volleyball teams has steadily grown.  Fifteen Division I teams and 204 players in 2012 has expanded to 64 teams across Divisions I, II and III and 1,070 players in 2017.[4]  As sport sponsorship has grown so has the number of players.[5]  Sponsorship alone, however, is not the only factor driving growth.  Beach volleyball rosters have expanded 22.8% since the sport’s first season in 2012.[6]  The average Division I roster size is now 16.7 players compared to 13.6 in the 2011-12 season.

Beach volleyball’s growth has expanded access to the extraordinary benefits women and girls derive from athletic participation.[7].  It also has lead to a greater need to understand the unique health concerns of female athletes, including issues related to gender specific physiology.  As nearly 60% of Division I beach volleyball programs are lead by male head coaches[8], exploring the interaction of the demands of beach volleyball and women’s health serves an important educational purpose.

In this article we’ll take a look at whether the unique energy costs of playing beach volleyball can better be understood to ensure female athletes are training and fueling properly for long term health and success.

Beach Volleyball – Physical Requirements and Physiological Demands

Beach volleyball is a physically demanding outdoor sport played in all weather conditions.[9]  Game tactics require players to move in multi-directional rapid bursts, across an 8×8 meter court, while explosively performing both vertical and horizontal jumping movements.  The game is played in a best-of-three-sets match format with matches lasting 40-54 minutes depending on the number of sets played.[10]  Sets to 21 points last about 18 minutes[11] and consist of about 38 rallies.[12]  An average rally lasts about 7 seconds[13] during which players will jump about 2.2 times, either blocking or attacking.[14].  Players compete in multiple matches over the course of a day and most events are contested over multiple days.[15]  Physiologically, the game actions, tempo, and movement patterns make beach volleyball a game of intermittent high intensity exercise interspersed by frequent periods of brief rest.[16]  At elite levels, players perform at approximately 75% of their maximum heart rate (about 146 bpm) throughout the match.[17]  A third of the match is played in excess of 80% of HRmax.[18]  According to data from Harvard Medical School, playing beach volleyball for 30 minutes burns between 240 and 355 calories, depending on playing weight.[19]

The physical demands of beach volleyball are heightened by the surface on which it is played.  Sand is difficult to perform in because it compresses and displaces at the point of contact.[20]  As the surface moves, athletes experience a loss of potential kinetic and elastic energy that makes their movement less efficient for the energy being exerted.[21]  Some research has associated performing in sand with an increased load on the lower limb muscles because they work harder in stabilization as sand displaces during athletic movement in it. [22]  As anyone who has gone to the beach knows, there’s a sensation of having to work much harder to move in sand than on a firm surface.  The sand surface in beach volleyball is also highly unpredictable because it can vary in depth,[23] composition,[24] and temperature[25] from event to event.

Perceived exertion while moving in sand is also associated with biomechanical adaptations during sand performance.  Research has shown several changes in the way the ankle, knee flexor, and hip joints work during the stride and jump mechanics of beach volleyball when compared to similar actions performed on a rigid surface.[26]  The biomechanical differences in the way the body functions in sand have been associated with a greater energy cost of performance.

Lastly, there is a higher level of muscle activation and physiological strain associated with exercising on sand compared to a firm surface.[27]  The sand thus imposes an additional physiological component to the demands of beach volleyball above those associated with performing the technical and tactical skills of the game.

Beach Volleyball – Energy Costs

The energy costs of performing on sand have uniformly been shown to significantly exceed that of performing on a rigid surface.  When compared to firm surface activity, sand imposes a 1.8 to 2.7 times greater energy cost to walking,[28], a 1.2 to 1.6 times greater energy cost to running,[29], and a 1.2 times energy cost to jumping.[30]

The energy cost of sand training means beach volleyball players exert greater energy pursuing the ball and jumping to serve, attack, and block than if they played indoors or on grass.  Beach volleyball thus imposes unique energy demands on its players.  The magnitude of the energy costs turns in part on the amount of sand displacement, which can vary based on the characteristics of the sand, including its granular composition, moisture content, and depth.[31].  This is why beach volleyball players find it easier to jump in shallow and wet sand than in deep and dry sand.  It also explains the difference players feel when they compete on traditionally “hard-packed” beaches, such as on the west coast of Florida, compared to deep sand beaches, such as in Hermosa Beach, California.

In short, beach volleyball athletes expend substantially more energy playing their sport in sand than their athletic counterparts playing on firm surfaces when performing lateral moves, running, diving, and jumping.

As collegiate beach volleyball attracts more women and girls into the sport, and the game itself continues to evolve, the unique physical and energy demands of the game must be understood within the context of the health and physiological needs of its female athletes.

Recent Study – Risk of LEA in Beach Volleyball Athletes

In the first study of its kind, a team of researchers recently examined the energy availability and muscle glycogen levels of a group of collegiate beach volleyball players and concluded that female college beach athletes are at risk of experiencing low energy levels.[32]  Participants were 18 NCAA Division I female beach volleyball athletes between the ages of 19 and 22 years old, weighing 63.3 to 68.4 kilograms, and standing 174.5 to 180.1 centimeters tall.

Researchers examined the participant’s dietary intake, energy expenditure, and energy availability by a 7 day food and activity log.  The players’ resting metabolic rate (RMR) and muscle glycogen levels were examined before and after practice.  The analysis revealed that 55.6% of the players were not eating enough calories to meet the caloric needs associated with the RMR.  No players were eating enough carbohydrates, and 94.4% of the athletes were experiencing low energy availability.  The findings were associated with the players’ inadequate dietary habits for the high energy demands of beach volleyball.  The results are published in Medicine and Science in Sports & Exercise.

LEA – Physiological Function and Performance

Low energy availability among female athletes is a significant concern.  It can inhibit an athlete’s response to training and hinder her performance in competition.  More importantly, low energy can be symptomatic of disordered eating behaviors which if not detected and treated can lead to serious long term health consequences.

Low energy availability develops when athletes do not consume enough food to meet their specific energy requirements for training, competing, and normal physiological functioning.[33].  Adequate calorie intake is necessary to maintain lean tissue mass, immune and reproductive function, and optimal athletic performance.[34]  When supply is low the body works to conserve energy through a range of endocrine adaptations that alter its ordinary functioning.[35]  It also begins to burn fat and lean tissue as fuel, a process that decreases muscle mass and impairs strength and endurance.[36]

Female athletes with low energy intake have also been found to consume too few micronutrients and be at risk of experiencing deficiencies in calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc and the B-complex vitamins, among others.[37]  Like inadequate caloric intake, micronutrient deficiencies can impair biological functioning and contribute to sub-optimal athletic performance.[38]

Clearly, a beach volleyball player who is consuming less energy than is required to train and perform in her sport is at risk of suffering performance impairments.  For this reason it is essential that beach players’ caloric intake be monitored and adjusted to properly fuel their bodies for the energy demands of the sport.[39]  This requires a coordinated effort among sports coaches, sport nutritionists, and team doctors.  While a number of studies indicate that female athletes are not consuming enough calories to meet their energy demands[40], to date there is little research on the caloric burn or energy needs of female beach volleyball players in the collegiate game.  The work of Gilchrist and her colleagues is an important contribution to our understanding, and reliable evidence that collegiate beach players may be at risk for low energy availability.

LEA – Female Athlete Triad

The role of collegiate sport coaches is first to support and protect the long term health of athletes in their care.  Low energy availability thus raises concerns that run more deeply than an athlete’s impaired athletic performance.  Women and girls who experience low energy may be at risk for a triad of serious health conditions known collectively as the female athlete triad.

The female athlete triad is a combination of interrelated conditions: (1) low energy availability, with or without disordered eating, (2) menstrual dysfunction, and (3) low bone mineral density.[41]  The triad is considered a spectrum disorder meaning each condition is evaluated on a range from low to higher levels of pathology and any one condition can meet the criteria for diagnosis.[42]  Low energy is widely considered the cornerstone, however, because it creates a risk of developing the other components of the triad.[43]

We’ve posited that the high energy demands of beach volleyball may contribute to female players’ susceptibility for low energy availability and noted that the latest research supports the view.  In the following section we’ll examine whether other aspects of collegiate beach volleyball contribute to the risk of female athletes developing low energy availability.

LEA In Beach Volleyball

Body Image

While female athletes in any sport can develop low energy availability, some sport settings contribute to a greater prevalence of the condition.  Studies have shown that athletes who perceive pressure to appear lean are more susceptible to the female athlete triad.[44].  Beach volleyball has not traditionally been considered a lean-athlete sport in the category of dancing, gymnastics, running, and diving.  However, the beach culture of the sport, in which participants traditionally have competed in bikinis, should not be ignored in a search for risk-indicators particularly in light of evidence that many female athletes report concern with the weight and shape of their body [45].  As the sport has become more professionalized uniform requirements have prohibited (college) and no longer require (international and Olympic) bikinis.  The restrictions do not, however, apply to junior girls or collegiate players training outside of their school season.  The drive in some female athletes to improve their body image on the beach could be considered a sport risk factor in beach volleyball.[46]

Time Demands – Eating Disruptions

As low energy availability is keyed to energy intake, collegiate beach volleyball athletes who skip meals to meet academic or training schedules (or simply to get more sleep) could be at risk of expending more energy than they are consuming.  Time demands on collegiate athletes are intensive and may disrupt optimal eating patterns and choices.[47]  The foreseeability of this risk for collegiate athletes counsels in favor of monitoring nutritional intake and educating players in time management skills that can mitigate the adverse impact of time demands on beach volleyball athletes’ energy levels.

Dual Sport Athletes

As many as 50% of Division I beach volleyball players are dual sport athletes who train and compete both for their school’s indoor and beach teams.[48]  Collegiate beach volleyball is thus unique in the high prevalence of athletes who have no official off-season and who may train and compete under different coaching and support staffs.  As the two sports impose distinct energy demands on players, and the continuous nature of training in-season adds hours of additional training time to players schedules, the dual sport status of many collegiate beach volleyball players raises a substantial risk that energy consumption may be inadequate to meet energy demands.

Sport coaches with dual sport athletes should implement energy and nutrition monitoring protocols to ensure female athletes are not at risk of developing low energy stores.  The services of a sports dietitian educated in the unique energy requirements and physiological demands of beach volleyball should also be made available to players as education has been shown to improve nutritional intake and knowledge in collegiate volleyball players.[49]

Conclusion

The presence of LEA in female beach players is particularly concerning given the unique energy demands of the sport and current diagnostic guidelines.  Low energy alone could meet the criteria for diagnosis of the female athlete triad and certainly should trigger further evaluation and monitoring.  Sport coaches should thus be educated in the risks of LEA, skilled in identifying symptoms, and prepared to seek professional assistance from outside the staff.  Identification and treatment requires a multidisciplinary, coordinated approach as early intervention and treatment are essential to the avoidance of long term health consequences for female beach volleyball players.

Notes

[1]  National Collegiate Athletic Association. 1982-2007 NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Report. Indianapolis, IN: National Collegiate Athletic Association; 2007.  Sports Sponsorship, Participation and Demographics Search [Data file]. Retrieved from http://web1.ncaa.org/rgdSearch/exec/main.  Participation rates are only for female athletes enrolled in NCAA member institutions and participating in sports for which the NCAA conducts championships.  Participation and sport sponsorship data used throughout this article is through the 2016-17 academic year and as of October 2017.

[2]  In 2016-17, there were 149 women’s team added at NCAA institutions and 87 women’s teams dropped, making it a slow year of growth for women’s sports.  Since 1988-89, more than 5,609 women’s teams were added to NCAA athletic programs, resulting in a net gain of 3,390 teams after adjusting for changes in sports sponsorship.  The average net gain for women’s sports teams over the last 18 years is 188.3 teams per year.  Compared to 1981-82 (when the detailed records began), the average NCAA campus has approximately 96 more female athletes.  National Collegiate Athletic Association.  1982-2007 NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Report. Indianapolis, IN: National Collegiate Athletic Association; 2007.  Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 requires that scholarship dollars be spent proportional to participation.  20 U.S.C. §§ 1681 et seq.; 34 C.F.R. § 106.37(c).

[3] National Collegiate Athletic Association. 1982-2007 NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Report. Indianapolis, IN: National Collegiate Athletic Association; 2007 (64 teams).  Sports Sponsorship, Participation and Demographics Search [Data file]. Retrieved from http://web1.ncaa.org/rgdSearch/exec/main (65 teams).  Participation rates are limited to female athletes enrolled in NCAA member institutions.  As many as 392 additional women compete on 32 NAIA and junior college beach volleyball teams.  American Volleyball Coaches Association.  College Beach Volleyball By the Numbers.  Lexington, KY: American Volleyball Coaches Association; July 2017.  Retrieved from https://www.avca.org/res/uploads/media/CollegeBeachVB-ByTheNumbers-6-17-.pdf.

[4] National Collegiate Athletic Association. 1982-2007 NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Report. Indianapolis, IN: National Collegiate Athletic Association; 2007 (64 teams).  Sports Sponsorship, Participation and Demographics Search [Data file]. Retrieved from http://web1.ncaa.org/rgdSearch/exec/main (65 teams).  Participation rates are limited to female athletes enrolled in NCAA member institutions.

[5]  According to the American Volleyball Coaches Association (AVCA), 50% of Division I rosters are comprised of dual sport athletes – athletes who play both indoor and beach volleyball.  American Volleyball Coaches Association.  2017 AVCA College Beach Volleyball Survey Results – 64 Teams.  Lexington, KY: American Volleyball Coaches Association; June 22, 2017.  Sport sponsorship therefore provides new collegiate participation opportunities to approximately 50% of the female athletes on beach volleyball rosters and new sport participation opportunities to 100% of those athletes.

[6] Compare the average roster size of 13.6 in 2011-12 (15 D-I teams and 204 players) to the average roster size of 16.7 in 2016-17 (64 teams and 1070 players).

[7]  Girls who participate in organized sports have a more positive self image and are at lower risk for teen pregnancy, substance abuse, suicide, and depression.  Sports participation by young girls also positively correlates with improved academic achievement in math and science.  Staurowsky, E.J., DeSousa, M.J., Miller, K.E, Sabo, D., Shakib, S., Theberge, N., Veliz, P., Weaver, A. & Williams, N. (2015).  Her life depends on it III: Sport, physical activity and the health and well being of American girls and women.  East Meadow, NY: Women’s Sports Foundation.

[8]  Independent survey of NCAA D-I beach volleyball coaching staffs conducted by Shane Spellman, Assistant Coach, Beach Volleyball at Tulane University.  Data is based on 50 programs currently staffed by a head coach.  Four programs currently in the process of hiring have been excluded.  Also excluded are three programs that have publicly announced an intention to add beach volleyball to their athletic programming commencing with the 2018-19 academic year.  Exclusion of putative future teams was made regardless of whether a coaching staff was announced as part of the sport sponsorship plan.

[9]  See, e.g., Ulmer, A., “Beach Volleyball: It Even Rains on Copacobana.”  10 Aug. 2016, www.reuters.com/article/us-olympics-rio-bvolleyball-weather/beach-volleyball-it-even-rains-on-copacabana-idUSKCN10L24Q (describing rainy, windy, and cold conditions during beach volleyball events of 2016 Summer Olympic Games in Rio); Robertson, L., “No matter the weather in London, beach volleyball goes on.”  31 July 2012, http://www.miamiherald.com/sports/article1941619.html (describing rainy, cold conditions during beach volleyball events of 2012 Summer Olympic Games in London); Martin, D.E. (1998).  Measurement of climatic heat stress at outdoor venues for endurance events at the Atlanta Olympic Games, 1996.  Sports Medicine Training & Rehabilitation, 8 (4), 321-46 (describing relationship between temperature and beach volleyball players’ health and performance during 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta).

[10]  Hayrinen, M., & Tampouratzis, K. (2012).  Technical and tactical game analysis of elite female beach volleyball.  KIHU Research Institute for Olympic Sports Pub. No. 37, 10.  Two set matches averaged 39 minutes 42 seconds.  Three set matches averaged  53 minutes 41 seconds.

[11]  Hayrinen, M., & Tampouratzis, K. (2012).  Technical and tactical game analysis of elite female beach volleyball.  KIHU Research Institute for Olympic Sports Pub. No. 37, 10.  Set duration for 15 point third sets averaged 14 minutes 24 seconds.  Id. We’ve chosen to include data only from the women’s game as the physical demands of women’s beach volleyball are more relevant to the issue under discussion than the different requirements of the men’s game.

[12]  Hayrinen, M., & Tampouratzis, K. (2012).  Technical and tactical game analysis of elite female beach volleyball.  KIHU Research Institute for Olympic Sports Pub. No. 37, 10.

[13]  Palao, J.M., Lopez-Martinez, A.B. & Ortega, E.  (2015).  Physical actions and work-rest time in women’s beach volleyball, International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 15, 424-429 (mean rally length of 6.46 during 2008 Olympic Games); Hayrinen, M., & Tampouratzis, K. (2012).  Technical and tactical game analysis of elite female beach volleyball.  KIHU Research Institute for Olympic Sports Pub. No. 37, 10 (average rally length of 6.9 seconds in FIVB World Tour and European Championships).

[14]  Palao, J.M., Lopez-Martinez, A.B. & Ortega, E.  (2015).  Physical actions and work-rest time in women’s beach volleyball, International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 15, 424-429.  Jumping requirements are slightly higher for blockers than defenders.

[15]  Collegiate and domestic professional beach volleyball events are most commonly contested over two (2) days.  International events are played over a period of 2-3 days (excluding the qualifier event preceding the main draw competition).  The Olympic beach volleyball tournaments for each gender are contested over a period of two (2) weeks.

[16]  Magalhaes, J., Inacio, M., Oliveira, E., Ribeiro, J.C. & Ascensao, A. (2011).  Physiological and neuromuscular impact of beach-volleyball with reference to fatigue and recovery.  Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 51, 66-73.

[17]  Magalhaes, J., Inacio, M., Oliveira, E., Ribeiro, J.C. & Ascensao, A. (2011).  Physiological and neuromuscular impact of beach-volleyball with reference to fatigue and recovery.  Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 51, 66-73 (approximately 75% – male players); Jimenez-Olmedo, J.M., Pueo, B, Penichet-Tomas, A., Chinchilla-Mira., J.J. & Perez-Turpin, J.A. (2017).  Physiological work areas in professional beach volleyball: a case study.  Retos: Federacion Espanola de Asociaciones de Docentes de Educacion Fisica (FEADEF), 31, 94-97  (players’ median max heart rate between 71.71% and 84.78%).

[18]  Magalhaes, J., Inacio, M., Oliveira, E., Ribeiro, J.C. & Ascensao, A. (2011).  Physiological and neuromuscular impact of beach-volleyball with reference to fatigue and recovery.  Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 51, 66-73.

[19]  “Calories burned in 30 minutes for people of three different weights.”  Harvard Health Publishing, 2004, July.  (Updated, 17 March 2017), www.health.harvard.edu/diet-and-weight-loss/calories-burned-in-30-minutes-of-leisure-and-routine-activities.

[20]  Binnie, M.J., Dawson, B., Pinnington, H., Landers, G. & Peeling, P.  (2004). Effect of sand versus grass training surfaces during an 8-week pre-season conditioning programme in team sports athletes.  Journal of Sports Science, 32(11), 1001-1012 (overcoming the lack of initial fixed resistance in sand requires greater exertion of effort and expenditure of energy).

[21]  Gaudino, P., Gaudino, C., Alberti, G., & Minetti., A. (2013).  Biomechanics and predicted energetics of sprinting on sand: Hints for soccer training.  Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 16, 271-275; Zamparo, P., Perini, R., Orizio, C., Sacher, M., & Ferretti, G., (1992).  The energy cost of walking or running on sand.  European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 65(2), 183-187.  See Lejeune, T.M., Williams, P.A., Heglund, N.C. (1998).  Mechanics and energetics of human locomotion on sand.  Journal of Experimental Biology. 201(Pt 13), 2071-2080.

[22]  Zamparo, P., Perini, R., Orizio, C., Sacher, M., & Ferretti, G., (1992).  The energy cost of walking or running on sand.  European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 65(2), 183-187; Lejeune, T.M., Williams, P.A., Heglund, N.C. (1998).  Mechanics and energetics of human locomotion on sand.  Journal of Experimental Biology. 201(Pt 13), 2071-2080.

[23]  Sand must be at least 40 centimeters deep and comprised of fine, loosely compacted grains for international competition.  Federation Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB), Official Beach Volleyball Rules, Rule 1.2.2 (2001-2020); USA Volleyball Beach Domestic Competition Regulations, Rule 1.2.2 (2015-17).  Maximum depth is unregulated.

[24]  The sand should be “levelled . . . as flat and uniform as possible” on a playing surface “free of rocks, shells and anything else, which can represent risks of cuts or injuries to the players.”   Federation Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB), Official Beach Volleyball Rules, Rule 1.2.1 (2001-2020);  USA Volleyball Beach Domestic Competition Regulations, Rule 1.2.2 (2015-17).

[25]  The sand reportedly reached 107 degrees (F) during the 2004 Summer Olympic Games (Athens, Greece).  “Sand Reaches 107 Degrees.”  ESPN, 22 Aug. 2004, http://www.espn.com/olympics/summer04/volleyball/news/story?id=1864959.

[26]  Giatsis, G., Panoutsakopoulos & Kollias, I.  (2017).  Biomechanical differences of arm swing countermovement jumps on sand and rigid surface performed by elite beach volleyball players.  Journal of Sports Sciences, 36, 997-1008 (compliance of sand adversely impacts coordination of lower limb joints);  Giatsis, G., Kollias, I., Panoutsakopoulos, V. & Papaiakovou, G.  (2007).  Biomechanical differences in elite beach volleyball players in vertical squat jump on rigid and sand surface.  Sports Biomechanics, 3, 145-158; Pinnington, H.C., Lloyd, D.G., Beiser, T.F. & Dawson, B.  (2005).  Kinematic and electromyography analysis of submaximal differences running on a firm surface compared with soft, dry sand.  European Journal of Applied Physiology, 94, 242-253 (greater hip and knee flexion angles observed while running on sand); see also Muramatsu, S., Fukudome, A., Miyama, M., Arimoto, M., & Kijima, A. (2006). Energy expenditure in maximal jumps on sand.  Journal of Physiological Anthropology, 25(1), 59-61 (decreased efficiency in coordinating body segments to jump in sand could be associated with greater energy expenditure).

[27]  Pinnington, H.C., Lloyd, D.G., Beiser, T.F. & Dawson, B.  (2005).  Kinematic and electromyography analysis of submaximal differences running on a firm surface compared with soft, dry sand.  European Journal of Applied Physiology, 94, 242-253.

[28]  Lejeune, T.M., Williams, P.A., Heglund, N.C.. (1998).  Mechanics and energetics of human locomotion on sand.  Journal of Experimental Biology. 201(Pt 13), 2071-2080;  Zamparo, P., Perini, R., Orizio, C., Sacher, M., & Ferretti, G., (1992).  The energy cost of walking or running on sand.  European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 65(2), 183-187.

[29]  Gaudino, P., Gaudino, C., Alberti, G., & Minetti., A. (2013).  Biomechanics and predicted energetics of sprinting on sand: Hints for soccer training.  Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 16, 271-275; Pinnington, H.C. & Dawson, B. (2001).  Running economy of elite surf iron men and male runners on soft dry beach sand and grass.  European Journal of Applied Physiology, 86, 62-70; Pinnington, H.C. & Dawson, B. (2001).  The energy cost of running on grass compared to soft dry sand.  Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 4(4), 416-430; Lejeune, T.M., Williams, P.A., Heglund, N.C.. (1998).  Mechanics and energetics of human locomotion on sand.  Journal of Experimental Biology. 201(Pt 13), 2071-2080; Zamparo, P., Perini, R., Orizio, C., Sacher, M., & Ferretti, G., (1992).  The energy cost of walking or running on sand.  European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 65(2), 183-187.

[30]  Muramatsu, S., Fukudome, A., Miyama, M., Arimoto, M., & Kijima, A. (2006). Energy expenditure in maximal jumps on sand.  Journal of Physiological Anthropology, 25(1), 59-61.

[31]  Pinnington, H.C. & Dawson, B. (2001).  Running economy of elite surf iron men and male runners on soft dry beach sand and grass.  European Journal of Applied Physiology, 86, 62-70.

[32]  Gilchrist, M., Torres-McGehee, T., Minori, M., Emerson, D., & Pritchett, K. (2017).  Energy Availability and Muscle Glycogen Levels in Division I Beach Volleyball Athletes.  Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 49(5S) Supplement I, 13-14.  Previous research focused only on indoor volleyball.  Woodruff, S.J. & Meloche, R.D. (2013).  Energy Availability of Female Varsity Volleyball Players.  International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 23, 24-30.

[33]  There is some evidence that female athletes’ energy needs increase above normal levels for her physical activity during the luteal (premenstrual) phase of the menstrual cycle.  Thomas, D.T., Erdman, K.A. & Burke, L.M. (2016).  Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics, dietitians of Canada, and the American college of sports medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance.  Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 116(3), 501-528 (citing Manore, M. & Thompson, J., Energy requirements of the athlete: Assessment and evidence of energy efficiency. in: L. Burke, V. Deakin (Eds.) Clinical Sports Nutrition. 5th ed. McGraw-Hill, Sydney-Australia: 2015, 114-139.).

[34]  American College of Sports Medicine, American Dietetic Association; Dietitians of Canada. Joint Position Statement: Nutrition and Athletic Performance.  Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2000, 32, 2130-2145.

[35]  Female Recreational Exercisers At Risk For Low Energy Availability, Slater, J, McLay-Cook, R., Brown, R. & Black, K. (2016).  International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise, 26(5), 421-427.

[36]  American College of Sports Medicine, American Dietetic Association; Dietitians of Canada. Joint Position Statement: Nutrition and Athletic Performance.  Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2000, 32, 2130-2145.

[37] Thomas, D.T., Erdman, K.A., Burke, L.M. (2016). Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics, dietitians of Canada, and the American college of sports medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 116(3), 501-528;  Silva, M-R.G. & Paiva, T. (2014).  Low energy availability and low body fat of female gymnasts before an international competition. Applied Sport Sciences, 15(7), 591-599.

[38] Lukaski, H.C., Vitamin and mineral status: Effects on physical performance. (2004).  Nutrition, 20 (7-8), 632-644.

[39]  Monitoring athletes’ energy intake may be particularly effective as there is evidence that athletes with low energy availability do not experience increased appetite.  Hubert, P., King, N.A., Blundell, J.E. (1998).  Uncoupling the effects of energy expenditure and energy intake: Appetite response to short-term energy deficit induced by meal omission and physical activity.  Appetite, 31(1), 9-19.

[40] Shriver, L.H., Betts, N.M., Wollenberg, G.  (2015).  Dietary Intakes and Eating Habits of College Athletes: Are Female College Athletes Following the Current Sports Nutrition Standards?  Journal of American College Health, 61, 10-16 (75% of participants not consuming enough carbs to minimally support energy for training); Hoogenboom, B., Morris, J., Morris, C., Schaefer, K. (2009). Nutritional knowledge and eating behaviors of female, collegiate swimmers.  North American Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 4, 139-148.

[41]  American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Committee on Adolescent Healthcare. Committee Opinion 702: Female Athlete Triad. Obstetrician Gynecologist, 2017, 129(6), e160-e167; Nattiv, A., Loucks, A.B., Mannore, M.M., Sanborn, C.F., Sundgot-Borgen, J., Warren, M.P.  (2007).  American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand.  The female athlete triad, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39(10), 1867-1882.

[42]  DeSousa, M.J., Nattiv, A., Joy, E. et al. (2014). Female Athlete Triad Coalition Consensus Statement on Treatment and Return to Play of the Female Athlete Triad: First International Conference held in San Francisco, California, May 2012 and Second International Conference held in Indianapolis, Indiana, May 2013.  British Journal of Sports Medicine, 48(4), 289.

[43]  Nattiv, A., Loucks, A.B., Mannore, M.M., Sanborn, C.F., Sundgot-Borgen, J., Warren, M.P.  (2007).  American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand.  The female athlete triad, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39(10), 1867-1882.  The International Olympic Committee proposed renaming the triad the “relative energy deficiency in sport” or “RED-S.”  Mountjoy, M., Sundgot-Borgen, J., Burke, L., Carter, S., Constantini, N., Lebrun, C., et al. (2014).  The IOC consensus statement: beyond the Female Athlete Triad–Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S). British Journal of Sports Medicine, 48(7), 491-497.

[44]  American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Committee on Adolescent Healthcare. Committee Opinion 702: Female Athlete Triad. Obstetrician Gynecologist, 2017, 129(6), e160-e167.  Reinking, M.F., Alexander, L.E. (2005). Prevalence of disordered-eating behaviors in undergraduate female collegiate athletes and nonathletes.  Journal of Athletic Training, 40(1), 47-51.

[45]  Frederic, D.A., Peplau, L.A., Lever, J. (2006).  The swimsuit issues: Correlates of body image in a sample of 52,677 heterosexual adults.  Body Image, 3, 413-419.

[46]  Koidou, E., Papadopoulou, S., Thoma, F., Euaggelinou, C. (2016).  Body dissatisfaction and body image of female athletes with normal body weight.  Clinical Nutrition EPEN, 13, e63; Bucchianeri, M.M., Arikian, A.J., Hannan, P.J., Eisenberg, M.E., Neumark-Sztainer, D. (2013).  Body dissatisfaction from adolescence to young adulthood: Findings from a 10-year longitudinal study.  Body Image, 10(1), 1-7.

[47]  Quatromoni, P.A., Clinical observations from nutritional services in college athletics.  (2008).  Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 108(4), 689-694.

[48]  American Volleyball Coaches Association.  2017 AVCA College Beach Volleyball Survey Results – 64 Teams.  Lexington, KY: American Volleyball Coaches Association; June 22, 2017.

[49]  Vallient, M.W, Emplaincourt, H.P., Wenzel, R.K. & Garner, B.H. (2012).  Nutrition education by a registered dietitian improves dietary intake and nutrition knowledge of a NCAA female volleyball team.  Nutrients, 4(6), 506-516.

Please visit the original website by Coach Wayne Holly to view this and other insightful contributions to our sport:  https://scienceofvolleyball.blogspot.com/